Harley-Davidson Motorbikeworkshop repair manual

Harley-Davidson is an American motorcycle producer.Because 1977, truly the only motorcycles available with the public beneath the Harley-Davidson brand have been heavyweight motorcycles, with engine displacements better than 700 cc, crafted for sailing about highways.Harley-Davidson sustains a big brand

Harley-Davidson is an American motorcycle producer. Founded inside Milwaukee, Wisconsin, throughout the initially decade of the 20th century, it was 1 of 2 main American motorcycle producers with survive the Great Depression. Harley-Davidson additionally survived a period of bad standard control plus competition from Japanese producers.
Because 1977, truly the only motorcycles available with the public beneath the Harley-Davidson brand have been heavyweight motorcycles, with engine displacements better than 700 cc, crafted for sailing about highways. Harley-Davidson motorcycles, or "Harleys", are noted for the custom of thick customization which gave rise with the chopper fashion of motorcycle. Except for the contemporary VRSC model family, present Harley-Davidson motorcycles reflect the designs of classic Harley designs. Harley-Davidson's tries with establish itself inside the light motorcycle marketplace have met small achievement plus have mostly been abandoned because the 1978 sale of its Italian Aermacchi subsidiary.
Harley-Davidson sustains a big brand community that keeps active by clubs, occasions, along with a museum. Licensing of the Harley-Davidson brand plus logo accounted for $40 million of the company's web money inside 2010.

As element of war reparations, Harley-Davidson acquired the shape of the tiny German motorcycle, the DKW RT 125, that they modified, produced, plus available from 1948 with 1966. Various models were prepared, including the Hummer from 1955 with 1959, even so they are all colloquially called "Hummers" at present. BSA in the UK took the same shape because the foundation of their BSA Bantam.


1971 Aermacchi Harley-Davidson Turismo Veloce
In 1960, Harley-Davidson consolidated the Model 165 plus Hummer lines into the Super-10, introduced the Topper scooter, plus purchased 50 percent of Aermacchi's motorcycle division. Importation of Aermacchi's 250 cc horizontal single started the following year. The bicycle bore Harley-Davidson badges plus was advertised because the Harley-Davidson Sprint. The engine of the Sprint was improved with 350 cc inside 1969 plus might stay which size till 1974, whenever the four-stroke Sprint was discontinued.
After the Pacer plus Scat models were discontinued at the finish of 1965, the Bobcat became the last of Harley-Davidson's American-made two-stroke motorcycles. The Bobcat was produced just inside the 1966 model year.
Harley-Davidson changed their American-made lightweight two-stroke motorcycles with all the Aermacchi-built two-stroke driven M-65, M-65S, plus Rapido. The M-65 had a semi-step-through frame plus tank. The M-65S had been a M-65 with a heavier tank which eliminated the step-through feature. The Rapido became a bigger bicycle with a 125 cc engine. The Aermacchi-built Harley-Davidsons became completely two-stroke driven whenever the 250 cc two-stroke SS-250 changed the four-stroke 350 cc Sprint inside 1974.
Harley-Davidson bought full control of Aermacchi's motorcycle creation inside 1974 plus continued creating two-stroke motorcycles there till 1978, whenever they available the center with Cagiva.

In 1981, AMF available the business with a group of thirteen investors led by Vaughn Beals plus Willie G. Davidson for $80 million. Inventory was purely controlled utilizing the just-in-time program.
In the early eighties, Harley-Davidson stated which Japanese producers were importing motorcycles into the US inside these amount because with damage or threaten with damage domestic manufacturers. After an research by the US International Trade Commission, President Reagan imposed inside 1983 a 45% tariff about imported bicycles with engine capacities better than 700 cc. Harley-Davidson subsequently refused has of assistance from Japanese motorcycle machines. But, the business did provide with drop the request for the tariff inside exchange for loan guarantees within the Japanese.
Instead of struggling with match the Japanese, the hot administration deliberately exploited the "retro" appeal of the machines, building motorcycles which deliberately adopted the appearance plus feel of their earlier machines as well as the next customizations of owners of which era. Many components like brakes, forks, shocks, carburetors, electrics plus wheels were outsourced from foreign producers plus standard improved, technical improvements were created, plus customers gradually returned.
Harley-Davidson purchased the "Sub Shock" canitlever-swingarm back suspension shape from Missouri engineer Bill Davis plus developed it into its Softail series of motorcycles, introduced inside 1984 with all the FXST Softail.
In reaction with potential motorcycle marketplace reduction due with the aging of baby-boomers, Harley-Davidson purchased deluxe motorhome maker Holiday Rambler inside 1986. In 1996, the business available Holiday Rambler with the Monaco Coach Corporation


Ford F-150 Super Crew
Harley-Davidson edition
The "Sturgis" model, boasting a double belt-drive, was introduced initially inside 1980 plus was created for 3 years. this bicycle was the brought back because a commemorative model inside 1991. By 1990, with all the introduction of the "Fat Boy", Harley again became the sales leader inside the heavyweight marketplace. At the time of the Fat Boy model introduction, a story quickly spread its silver paint job plus additional attributes were inspired by the B-29; plus Fat Boy had been a mixture of the names of the atomic bombs Fat Man plus Little Boy. But, the Urban Legend Reference Pages lists this story because an urban legend.
1993 plus 1994 saw the substitution of FXR models with all the Dyna, that became the sole rubber mount FX Big Twin frame inside 1995. The FXR was revived quickly from 1999 with 2000 for specialized limited editions.
In 2000, Ford Motor Company added a Harley-Davidson trim level with the F-150, that was yielded till 2003. In 2004, Ford introduced a Harley-Davidson trim level with the Super Duty, that was yielded till the trim was discontinued for the 2011 model year. Production of the F-150 Harley-Davidson resumed inside 2006 plus continued till 2012, whenever Ford discontinued the F-150 Harley-Davidson edition for the 2013 model year due with low sales, accounting for just 1-2% of the F-150's total sales.
Construction began found on the $75 million, 130,000 square-foot Harley-Davidson Museum inside the Menomonee Valley about June 1, 2006. It opened inside 2008 plus houses the company's massive assortment of historical motorcycles plus business archives, and a restaurant, café plus meeting room.

The Harley-Davidson Confederate Edition became a cross-range limited edition motorcycle yielded inside 1977. It was introduced after the lucrative manufacture of the Liberty Edition with commemorate America's bicentennial inside 1976. The Confederate Edition consisted of the specialized commemorative paint scheme of metallic gray paint plus 'rebel' flag decals found on the gas tank plus an military general’s sleeve braid decal found on the front fender plus that was used with the Harley-Davidson Super Glide, FLH Electra Glide, Harley-Davidson Sportster XLH, XLCH plus XLT models.
The Confederate Editions available inside tiny amounts, considered due with a mixture of deficiency of noticeable promotion as well as the perceived controversy over the utilization of the Confederate flag.
The Confederate Editions are not shown inside the Harley-Davidson motorcycle museum inside Milwaukee, reflecting what exactly is commonly believed with be an unofficial disavowal by the organization of the bike's production; official statements from Harley-Davidson representatives Annie Tynion plus Kenneth G. Schmidt were later introduced in regards to the company's choice with stop utilize of the Confederate flag about its bicycles. Harley-Davidson later changed this choice plus announced which nearby dealerships can choose for themselves whether with employ the emblems.
Gene Perryman, a Harley-Davidson archivist, described the authentic model device numbers which numbered the Condeferate Editions. The matter moreover described the uncommon marketing information for the a Harley-Davidson Sportster Confederate Edition featuring a model inside a cowboy hat with a Condederate flag.


Harley-Davidson Confederate Edition Sportster model
Because of the low manufacturing numbers it's considered among the rarest Harley-Davidson models.

The expression softail pertains with motorcycles plus bicycles which feature a back suspension program with springs or shock absorbers with absorb bumps. On softail motorcycles, the shock absorbers or springs are usually hidden below from see with provide the appearance of the hard-tail or rigid frame, nevertheless several elder motorcycles like the authentic BMW R series really utilize a rigid frame shape with an outdoor suspension associated straight with the back axle. The word softail is a authorized trademark of Harley-Davidson motorcycles, coined with all the launch of the FXST Softail inside 1984. Because then, the term has extended with include additional motorcycles with hidden back suspensions and bicycles incorporating a back suspension.

In Harley-Davidson motorcycles, the softail frame is made with resemble the hardtail bicycles of the past, whilst nonetheless providing the comfort of back suspension. The shock absorbers are placed over the axis of the motorcycle, tucked away below the transmission.


2011 Harley-Davidson FLSTFB Softail Fat Boy Lo
There are many Harley-Davidson models with all the Softail frame, including the Softail Standard, Custom, Springer Softail, Heritage Softail, Heritage Springer, Night Train, Deluxe, Deuce, Fat Boy, the Dark Custom Cross Bones, as well as the Dark Custom Blackline. These motorcycles have the same engine, transmission plus frame with all the exception of the Deuce, that has a 2 inches backbone stretch, however vary inside the choice of fork, wheels plus accessories.

Bill Davis, an avid Harley rider plus engineer from St. Louis, Mo. crafted the softail inside the mid-1970s. His initially shape, that he worked about inside 1974 plus 1975, had a cantilever swingarm pivoted at the bottom plus sprung at the best with all the springs plus shock absorber hidden below the seat. Upon functioning out his shape, Davis built a prototype based about his 1972 Super Glide. Davis patented his shape plus approached Willie G. Davidson, arranging a meeting inside August 1976. Davidson was impressed, nevertheless produced no commitments. Davidson replied six months later, stating which the organization wouldn't be capable with utilize the shape at the time however was nevertheless interested inside it.
Davis continued with develop the shape, flipping the pivot as well as the springing points about thus which the springs plus shock absorber were beneath the frame as well as the pivot point was at the best of the triangular swingarm. This authorized the conventional Harley-Davidson oil tank with be located below the seat. Davis tried with make the modern shape independently because the Road Worx Sub-Shock, however the partnership he had place together for this cause collapsed. Harley-Davidson executive Jeffrey Bleustein approached Davis soon afterward plus started negotiations with purchase Davis's shape. Davis available his patents, prototype, plus tooling with Harley-Davidson inside January 1982. After further testing plus development, Davis's shape was introduced inside June 1983 because the 1984 Harley-Davidson FXST Softail.

The classic Harley-Davidson machines are V-twin machines, every with a 45° angle involving the cylinders. The crankshaft has a single pin, plus both pistons are associated to the pin by their connecting rods.
This 45° angle is covered beneath many United States patents plus is an technology tradeoff which enables a big, high-torque engine inside a comparatively little room. It causes the cylinders with fire at uneven intervals plus produces the choppy "potato-potato" sound thus firmly connected with the Harley-Davidson brand.
To simplify the engine plus minimize fees, the V-twin ignition was crafted to work with a single set of points plus no distributor. This really is termed as a double fire ignition program, causing both spark plugs with fire irrespective of that cylinder was about its compression stroke, with all the alternative spark connect firing about its cylinder's exhaust stroke, effectively "spending a spark". The exhaust note is basically a throaty growling sound with several popping. The 45° shape of the engine therefore creates a connect firing sequencing because such: The initial cylinder fires, the next cylinder fires 315° later, then there is a 405° gap till the initial cylinder fires again, offering the engine its distinctive sound.
Harley-Davidson has utilized many ignition systems throughout its history – whether it is the early points plus condenser program,, magneto ignition program employed about 1958 with 1969 Sportsters, early electronic with centrifugal mechanical advance weights,, or the late electronic with transistorized ignition control component, more familiarly recognised as the black box or the mind,.
Starting inside 1995, the business introduced Electronic Fuel Injection because an alternative for the 30th anniversary edition Electra Glide. EFI became standard about all Harley-Davidson motorcycles, including Sportsters, on the introduction of the 2007 product line.
In 1991, Harley-Davidson started with engage inside the Sound Quality Working Group, founded by Orfield Labs, Bruel plus Kjaer, TEAC, Yamaha, Sennheiser, SMS plus Cortex. This was the nation's initially group with share analysis about emotional acoustics. Later which year, Harley-Davidson participated inside a series of sound standard research at Orfield Labs, based about recordings taken at the Talladega Superspeedway, with all the goal with lower the sound level for EU guidelines whilst analytically capturing the "Harley Sound." This analysis lead to the bicycles which were introduced inside conformity with EU practices for 1998.
On February 1, 1994, the organization filed a sound trademark application for the distinctive sound of the Harley-Davidson motorcycle engine: "The mark consists of the exhaust sound of applicant's motorcycles, yielded by V-twin, normal crankpin motorcycle machines whenever the goods are inside use". Nine of Harley-Davidson's competitors filed comments opposing the application, arguing which cruiser-style motorcycles of different brands utilize a single-crankpin V-twin engine that provide a synonymous sound. These objections were followed by litigation. In June 2000, the firm dropped efforts with federally register its trademark.

F-head, sometimes known because JD, pocket valve plus IOE, 1914–1929, plus 1922–1929
Flathead, 1930–1948 plus 1935–1941.
Knucklehead, 1936–1947 61 cubic inch, plus 1941–1947 74 cubic inch
Panhead, 1948–1965 61 cubic inch, plus 1948–1965, 74 cubic inch
Shovelhead, 1966–1984, 74 cubic inch plus 80 cubic inch because late 1978
Evolution, 1984–1998, 80 cubic inch
Twin Cam 1999–present, inside the following versions:
Twin Cam 88, 1999–2006, 88 cubic inch
Twin Cam 88B, counterbalanced variation of the Twin Cam 88, 2000–2006, 88 cubic inch
Twin Cam 95, because 2000, 95 cubic inch
Twin Cam 96, because 2007. As of 2012, just the Street Bob plus Super Glide Custom Models nonetheless employ the 96.96 cubic inch
Twin Cam 103, 2003–2006, 2009, 103 cubic inch, Standard about 2011 Touring models: Ultra Limited, Road King Classic plus Road Glide Ultra plus optional found on the Road Glide Custom plus Street Glide. Standard about many 2012 models excluding Sportsters plus 2 Dynas
Twin Cam 110, because 2007, 110 cubic inch

The Revolution engine is based found on the VR-1000 Superbike race system, co-developed by Harley-Davidson's Powertrain Engineering team plus Porsche Engineering inside Stuttgart, Germany. It is a fluid cooled, double overhead cam, internally counterbalanced 60 degree V-twin engine with a displacement of 69 cubic inch, producing 115 hp at 8,250 rpm at the crank, with a redline of 9,000 rpm. It was introduced for the hot V-Rod line inside 2001 for the 2002 model year, beginning with all the single VRSCA model.
A 1,250 cc Screamin' Eagle adaptation of the Revolution engine was prepared accessible for 2005 plus 2006, plus was present thereafter inside a single creation model from 2005 with 2007. In 2008, the 1,250 cc Revolution Engine became standard for the whole VRSC line. Harley-Davidson claims 123 hp at the crank for the 2008 VRSCAW model. The VRXSE Destroyer is loaded with a stroker Screamin' Eagle 79 cubic inch Revolution Engine, producing over 165 hp.
The touring family, sometimes known because "dressers", involves Road King, Road Glide, Street Glide plus Electra Glide models available inside numerous trim. The Road Kings have a "retro cruiser" appearance plus are loaded with a big well-defined windshield. Road Kings are reminiscent of big-twin models within the 1940s plus 1950s. Electra Glides is diagnosed by their full front fairings. Many Electra Glides sport a fork-mounted fairing called the "Batwing" due with its unmistakable form. The Road Glide plus Road Glide Ultra Classic have a frame-mounted fairing, called the "Sharknose". The Sharknose involves a distinctive, double front headlight.
Touring models are distinguishable by their big saddlebags, back coil-over air suspension plus are truly the only models to provide full fairings with radios plus CBs. All touring models employ the same frame, initial introduced with a Shovelhead engine inside 1980, plus carried forward with just small updates till 2009, whenever it was thoroughly redesigned. The frame is recognized by the place of the steering head inside front of the forks plus was the initial H-D frame with rubber mount the drivetrain with isolate the rider within the vibration of the big V-twin.
The frame was modified for the 1994 model year whenever the oil tank went beneath the transmission as well as the power was moved inboard from beneath the appropriate saddlebag with below the seat. In 1997, the frame was again modified with let for a bigger power beneath the seat plus with lower seat height. In 2007, Harley-Davidson introduced the 96 cubic inches Twin Cam 96 engine, too the six-speed transmission with provide the rider better speeds found on the highway.
In 2006, Harley introduced the FLHX Street Glide, a bicycle crafted by Willie G. Davidson with be his individual ride, with its touring line.
In 2008, Harley added anti-lock braking systems plus cruise control because a factory installed way about all touring models. Additionally hot for 2008 is the 6-US-gallon gas tank for all touring models. 2008 additionally brought throttle-by-wire with all touring models.
For the 2009 model year, Harley-Davidson has redesigned the whole touring range with many changes, including a hot frame, brand-new swingarm, a completely revised engine-mounting program, 17-inch front wheels for all yet the FLHRC Road King Classic, along with a 2–1–2 exhaust. The changes cause better weight carrying ability, greater handling, a easier engine, longer range plus less exhaust heat sent with the rider plus passenger. Additionally introduced for the 2009 model year is the FLHTCUTG Tri-Glide Ultra Classic, the initial three-wheeled Harley because the Servi-Car was discontinued inside 1973. The model qualities a distinctive frame along with a 103-cubic-inch engine exclusive with the trike.
Dyna-frame motorcycles were developed inside the 1980s plus early 1990s plus debuted inside the 1991 model year with all the FXDB Sturgis available inside limited edition quantities. In 1992 the line continued with all the limited edition FXDB Daytona along with a manufacturing model FXD Super Glide. The new DYNA frame showcased big-twin machines plus conventional styling. They is recognized within the Softail by the conventional coil-over suspension which links the swingarm with the frame, plus within the Sportster by their bigger motors. On these models, the transmission furthermore houses the engine's oil reservoir.
Before 2008, Dyna models usually showcased a narrow, XL-style front fork plus front wheel, that the producer included the letter "X" inside the model designation with indicate. This lineup traditionally included the Super Glide, Super Glide Custom, Street Bob, plus Lower Rider. One exception was the Wide Glide, that maintained the width of the XL forks along with a narrow front wheel, however, placed the forks about wider triple-trees which provide a beefier appearance. In 2008, the Dyna Fat Bob was introduced with the Dyna lineup, featuring aggressive styling like a modern 2–1–2 exhaust, twin headlamps, a 180 mm back tire, plus, for the very first time inside the Dyna lineup, a 130 mm front tire. For the 2012 model year, the Dyna Switchback became the initially Dyna with break the custom of getting an FX model designation: with detachable painted difficult saddlebags, touring windshield, heavier fork tubes, headlight nacelle along with a broad front tire with full fender. The new front end resembled the big-twin FL models from 1968-1971.
The Dyna family selected the 88-cubic-inch twin cam from 1999 with 2006. In 2007, the displacement was improved with 96 cubic inches because the factory improved the stroke with four.375 inches. For the 2012 model year, the producer started to provide Dyna models with all the 103-cubic-inch upgrade. All Dyna models utilize a rubber-mounted engine with isolate engine vibration.

Introduced inside 1957, the Sportster family were conceived because racing motorcycles, plus were favored about dirt plus flat-track race guides by the 1960s plus 1970s. Smaller plus lighter than the different Harley models, modern Sportsters use 883 cc or 1,200 cc Evolution machines plus, though usually modified, stay synonymous inside appearance with their racing ancestors.
Up till the 2003 model year, the engine found on the Sportster was rigidly installed with the frame. The 2004 Sportster received a new frame accommodating a rubber-mounted engine. This produced the bicycle heavier plus reduced the accessible lean angle, when it reduced the amount of vibration sent with the frame as well as the rider, providing a easier ride for rider plus passenger.
In the 2007 model year, Harley-Davidson celebrated the 50th anniversary of the Sportster plus yielded a limited edition called the XL50, of that just 2000 were produced for sale internationally. Every motorcycle was individually numbered plus came inside 1 of 2 hues, Mirage Pearl Orange or Vivid Black. Additionally inside 2007, electronic gas injection was introduced with the Sportster family, as well as the Nightster model was introduced inside mid-year. In 2009, Harley-Davidson added the Iron 883 with the Sportster line, because piece of the Dark Custom series.
In the 2008 model year, Harley-Davidson introduced the XR1200 Sportster inside Europe, Africa, as well as the Middle East. The XR1200 had an Evolution engine tuned with make 91 bhp, four-piston double front disk brakes, plus an aluminum swing arm. Motorcyclist showcased the XR1200 found on the cover of its July 2008 matter plus was mostly positive regarding it inside their "First Ride" story, inside that Harley-Davidson was repeatedly asked with market it inside the United States. One potential cause for the delayed accessibility inside the United States was the truth which Harley-Davidson had to get the "XR1200" naming rights from Storz Performance, a Harley customizing store inside Ventura, Calif. The XR1200 was introduced inside the United States inside 2009 inside a specialized color scheme including Mirage Orange highlighting its dirt-tracker history. The initial 750 XR1200 models inside 2009 were pre-ordered plus came with a amount 1 tag for the front of the bicycle, autographed by Kenny Coolbeth plus Scott Parker along with a thank you/welcome letter within the business, finalized by Bill Davidson. The XR1200 was discontinued inside model year 2013.
Designation
With the exception of the street-going XR1000 of the 1980s as well as the XR1200 many Sportsters produced for street utilize have the prefix XL inside their model designation. For the Sportster Evolution machines selected because the mid-1980s, there were 2 engine models. Motorcycles with all the small engine are designated XL883, whilst those with all the greater engine were initially designated XL1100. When the scale of the greater engine was improved from 1,100 cc with 1,200 cc, the designation was changed accordingly from XL1100 with XL1200. Subsequent letters inside the designation refer with model variations in the Sportster range, e.g. the XL883C pertains with an 883 cc Sportster Custom, when the XL1200S designates the now-discontinued 1200 Sportster Sport.